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投稿者: NINDJA 投稿日時: 2007-5-14 20:18:00 (3559 ヒット)

Mud clogging ODA-built dams
Sediment in Indonesian reservoirs building up need for more yen loans

The Yomiuri Shimbun, 14 May 2007


Lakes formed behind many dams in Indonesia constructed with yen loans have filled with sediment much faster than initially projected, resulting in the need for additional loans for dredging, according to documents obtained by The Yomiuri Shimbun.

Documents of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation, which provided the yen loans through Japanese official development assistance, show that about 90 percent of the reservoir at one dam has filled with mud.

JBIC has not disclosed data about the conditions in most cases.

Dam experts have pointed out that many dams were constructed at ill-advised locations, indicating sloppy use of ODA loans in overseas projects.

Bakaru Dam for hydro-power generation on Sulawesi Island was designed by a Japanese consulting firm and the JBIC extended 22 billion yen in loans. The dam was completed in 1990.

But sediment began accumulating in the lake behind the dam soon after completion. A projection made at the design stage predicted about 130,000 cubic meters of sediment accumulating in the lake every year. The actual figure, however, has been more than six times that at about 800,000 cubic meters.

Local people said the sediment is so built up that the dam's gates designed to discharge excess sediment do not work anymore.

JBIC has asked the Japanese consulting firm to check more than 100 dams in the country because so many reservoirs are showing similar problems.

According to the JBIC report compiled in December 2004, obtained by The Yomiuri Shimbun, three of eight dams where mud-accumulation problems were especially serious were constructed with loans from JBIC.

Of the three, Bakaru Dam was in the worst condition. About 93 percent of the lake's total volume--about 6.9 million cubic meters--is filled with sediment.

At the other two dams, 36 percent and 26 percent of their reservoirs' capacities are filled with mud.

Bakaru Dam was initially expected to generate enough electricity for six hours in the morning and evening every day for nearby cities, even through the dry season. But due to the water shortage caused by the sediment, the power plant has only been able to operate for about 2-1/2 hours a day on average, resulting in frequent blackouts.

JBIC decided to conduct more detailed checks last year and found more than 6 billion yen would be needed to dredge filled lakes.

Though JBIC refused to disclose details of negotiations for additional loans, sources close to the issue said the Indonesian side was reluctant to accept new loans, making it uncertain if dredging work could begin.

Initial sediment projections were so far off from actual accumulation " mainly because illegal logging upstream caused increased mud to flow into the rivers," a JBIC official said.

But a source involved in the construction of the dams said mud did not flow smoothly because the angles of slopes around the construction sites were too gentle, adding that site selections were poorly made and that illegal logging is merely an excuse.

A senior JBIC official also said: "It's abnormal that dam lakes are filled with sediment less than 20 years after completion. Initial designs must've been faulty."

Two other dams built through yen loans in Indonesia have similar sediment problems, but were not mentioned in the report.

Sediment has built up in the reservoir of the Bili-Bili Dam on Sulawesi, exceeding the lake's allowable limit, and the JBIC has extended about 10 billion yen in additional loans to fix the problem.

At the Wonogiri Dam on Java, urgent restoration work was done five years ago for 750 million yen, but the effect has been negligible. Dam experts say much more money will be needed to implement drastic measures to fix the problem.

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